Beyond the Numbers

William Rayens | A Student-Centered Approach for Learning Statistical Reasoning | 9th Edition

Thank you for your interest in Beyond the Numbers. Over the years we have made some changes based on student and instructor feedback, and this edition is no different. To learn more, click on Book Overview.

Book Overview

Dr. William Rayens has taught statistical reasoning at the University of Kentucky (U.K.) for about thirty-five years. This book addresses the needs of the statistical reasoning community, as well as the ever-growing universal need for statistically-literate citizens. There are several conceptuallyfocused statistical reasoning books on the market, but Beyond the Numbers: A Student-Centered Approach to Learning Statistical Reasoning is distinct in two noteworthy ways:

1. This text is unambiguously focused on statistical reasoning. Our goal is to help students competently consume statistical ideas that meet them where they live—both academically and personally. If you measure worth by the number of computations performed within this text, then it might seem light. If you measure worth based on the weight of the statistical reasoning that the chosen methods surface, then the book is heavy, indeed. Computations and exposure to different methods are still valued since they surely increase students’ life skills. But we have been careful not to allow students to be distracted by unnecessary computations since it has been our experience that they often find those easier to grasp than the more important understanding of what is gained from such computations.

2. This text is designed to shift the primary responsibility of learning to the student. Borrowing the words of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) educator Robert Talbert, the goal of this shift is to change the mindset of the student from a “renter” to an “owner.” In a classroom of renters, fees are paid and the management is expected to deliver. In a classroom of owners, however, students realize that it is their responsibility to engage, absorb, and retain. The instructor’s difficult, but important, job is to prepare an environment in which that can happen. This book, mostly through how its exercises are structured, is designed to help facilitate students’ transition from renters to owners. While the content is carefully constructed to prepare students to do the accompanying exercises, they will be asked repeatedly to read, comprehend, and assimilate in order to complete them.

How This Book Has Changed and Why

Beyond the Numbers: Student-Centered Activities for Learning Statistical Reasoning has undergone several important revisions over the years. The change in layout with the 8th edition (including a slight change in the name) is the most drastic. These changes are the result of feedback from colleagues and Dr. Rayens’ own experiences after nearly ten years using the book in slightly different forms along the way. We are convinced that what we have now will be easier for both the instructors and the students. In order to understand where we are now and why we are here, it is useful to take a broad view of where we have been. While Dr. Rayens doesn’t presume to speak for all his colleagues, and certainly not for others who have used this book, the comments that are made below reflect a fairly wide set of experiences presented with fully open eyes and a good sense of humor at the importance of being adaptable.

Period of Early Naiveté

Characterized By

  • No on-board content.
  • Flipped classroom.
  • All exercises required open response.
  • Material presented in non-traditional module format.
  • All student work was mapped to modules but appeared as a set of activities and not as exercises.

Reality on the Ground

  • This was the purest teaching that most of us had ever done.
  • It was a lot of work for the instructors.
  • Students in large introductory classes struggle with the focus and independence required by this challenging format.
  • Instructors found they had to make a lot of the connections for the students.

Period of Increasing Brain Size

Characterized By

  • Added on-board content.
  • Flipped classroom replaced with what we really intended: a studentcentered classroom.
  • All exercises still required open response
  • Material presented in non-traditional module format.
  • All student work was mapped to modules but appeared as a set of activities and not as exercises.

Reality on the Ground

  • On-board content helped a great deal with the students knowing where to go. Appealed more to their chapter-focused experiences in countless other courses.
  • Grading open response was a lot of work for instructors. In addition, many students struggled with writing coherent responses in the foreign language of inference.
  • Some instructors began changing the open response into well-formed multiple choice.
  • Students still struggled with the format of the activities and how to map those to the relevant content.

Period of Light

Characterized By

  • Material organized into chapters.
  • Activities were changed to so-named exercises following each chapter.
  • Material is no longer laid out as modules, but rather in a format that appears more traditional.
  • Exercises are now a combination of open response and multiple choice.

Reality on the Ground

  • Expect this format to be much easier for students and instructors.
  • Instructors can require the students to provide detailed explanations for their multiple choice answers. But they also have the option of just keeping them multiple choice which will make grading in large lecture classrooms realistic again.
  • Significantly more material has been added so that instructors now have more to choose from as they map out a semester plan.
  • All homework questions—multiple choice and open response—are available in rtf format for quick uploading (e.g., with Respondus) to standard course management systems such as Blackboard or Canvas.

Relevancy Still a Priority

If you are going to ask students to be actively involved in their own learning, it is important you engage them. With examples that are relevant to their day-to-day encounters, students are more likely to relate to the material. Once the connection is made, students tend to be drawn into the content and consequently become more involved in their own learning. To help make these critical connections, we have been careful in our choice of exercises. Throughout the book we address current topics that are not only illustrative in content, but are also relatable to the student. Some examples include the following:

  • A February 2014 study on gay marriage to facilitate the construction and interpretation of a confidence interval, when the margin of error is given.
  • A 2014 Gallup Organization–Purdue University report on the effects of one’s college choice to introduce the idea of using confidence intervals to make hypothesis-testing like decisions.
  • A study on the efficacy of social networking systems as instructional tools to demonstrate the empirical rule.

Another key to engagement is the presentation of the material. We have deliberately chosen a chapter design that is more open, friendly, and less formal than other textbooks that cover similar material. Don’t be fooled; the material is there. We have opted for a format that is more student-appealing.

Software as Part of a College Education

All students, from liberal arts majors to engineers, need to know how to use basic software suites to manipulate numbers, perform calculations, and create graphs. Sobered by how few students learned these basic skills as they progressed through college, we have long endeavored to integrate them naturally into the material in this book. While we encourage our students to use any software, even online applets, we illustrate some graphical and summary computation throughout with Microsoft Excel. The specific software doesn’t really matter, but students should probably have some basic exposure before graduating.

Table of Contents

PREFACE: Beyond the Numbers

A Student-Centered Approach to Learning Statistical Reasoning XI

Overview of the Workbook XI

How This Book Has Changed and Why XI

Exercises Old and New XIII

​Relevancy Still a Priority XIII

Software as Part of a College Education XIII

About the Author XIV

CHAPTER 1: Number Sense: Basic Numeracy 1

Introduction 1

Human Inference 1

Decimal Points and Deceptive Charts 3

Decimal Points 3

Deceptive Graphs 4

Chapter 1 Exercises 6

Reading Check 6

Beyond the Numbers 6

        1. Cocaine and Kids 6
        2. Was Kobe Streaking? 8
        3. You Are So Random. Or Maybe Not. 8
        4. Cutting the Corpus Callosum 9
        5. Have I Got a Story for You! 10

Projects 11

        1. Very Lucky Project 11
        2. Uncovering Your Own Slippery Evidence 11

CHAPTER 2: Number Sense: Basic Computational Skills and Benchmarks 13

Introduction 13

Check Calculations 13

Rate Rates 14

Say the Unsaid 15

Know Some Benchmarks 16

Master Background Bugaboos 18

Means and Medians 18

Back to College Level 19

Standard Deviation 20

Histograms 23

Chapter 2 Exercises 27

Reading Check 27

Beyond the Numbers 27

        1. Nimble Numbers 27
        2. Violence in Chicago 29
        3. Difficult Dilbert Dialogue 31
        4. Contraception Deception 32
        5. Nursing Knowledge Needed 33
        6. Statistical Citizenship 33
        7. Winging Out Some Computations 35
        8. A BIGS Change 36
        9. Gates-Proof Inference 37
        10. The Spice of Life 38
        11. Visual Validation 41

Projects 42

        1. Administration Salaries 42
        2. Reality Video 43

CHAPTER 3: Statistical Experiments and the Problem of Confounding 45

A Working Definition 45

Troublemaker: Confounding 45

Example Revisited 46

Necessary Language 47

Proper Comparisons and Randomization 48

The Placebo Effect 48

Vocabulary and Diagrams 49

Randomization 49

Statistical Significance 50

What’s the Issue? 31

Chapter 3 Exercises 53

Reading Check 53

Beyond the Numbers 54

        1. Slippery Evidence and Confounding 54
        2. Make Mine a Large 55
        3. Brains and Beats 55
        4. Fuzzy Quasi Is a Bear 56
        5. Experimentation Takes Flight 58
        6. Catching on to Experimentation 59
        7. Cancer Carafe 61
        8. Of Mice and People 62
        9. Random Reflections 63
        10. Random Opposition 64
        11. A Badge of Big 65
        12. Designer Thoughts 66
        13. What to Believe? 68

Projects 69

        1. Designing Your Own Experiment: Part I 69
        2. Reality Video 70

CHAPTER 4: Sampling: Purpose and Challenges 71

Introduction 71

How NOT to Sample 72

Simple Language 73

Simple Random Sampling 76

Practically Speaking 77

Key Idea Revisited 79

Dewey Defeats Truman 79

Chapter 4 Exercises 81

Practice and Basic Comprehension 81

Beyond the Numbers 81

        1. Texting Error 81
        2. A Weak Majority 82
        3. Push and Pull Opinions 83
        4. Monkey Surveys 85
        5. Random Evolution 85
        6. Careful Counting 85
        7. Social Media Sampling 86
        8. Bravos for Bucks 87
        9. Bezos Bosom Buddy 88
        10. Gulliver Travels 88
        11. Fondue Folly 89
        12. No-Stumble Sampling 90
        13. Social Media Sampling—Revisited 91
        14. Purposive Sampling 92
        15. Getting Gallup 93
        16. Weighting Room 94

Projects 69

        1. Conducting a Formal Survey: Part I 95
        2. Reality Video 97

CHAPTER 5: Confidence Intervals: What They Are and How We Use Them 99

Introduction 99

Random Sampling Error 100

Anatomy of the Confidence Interval 101

Margin of Error 101

Results for Sample Proportion 102

Results for Sample Mean 102

What Kind of Confidence? 103

Chapter 5 Exercises 106

Reading Check 106

Beyond the Numbers 106

        1. MOE Information Needed 106
        2. Is It Warm in Here? 108
        3. Americans and Their Guns 109
        4. Sticker Shock 110
        5. A Common Challenge 112
        6. Inaugural Intervals 114

Projects 115

        1. Conducting a Formal Survey: Part II 115
        2. Designing Your Own Experiment: Part II 117
        3.  Reality Video 119

CHAPTER 6: Confidence Intervals: Where They Come From 121

Introduction 121

Sampling Distributions 121

The Empirical Rule 123

Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportion 125

Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean 127

So Where DO Confidence Intervals Come From? 129

Chapter 6 Exercises 131

Reading Check 131

Beyond the Numbers 131

        1. Connecting Relative Area to Probability 131
        2. Face in Class Books 132
        3. Class on Facebook? 133
        4. Denying the Pass 134
        5. Making the Pass 135
        6. Sizing up a Poll 136

Projects 137

        1. Rolling Bells 137
        2. Repetition Confidence 138
        3. Reality Video 140

CHAPTER 7: Sampling: When Probability Isn’t Enough 141

Introduction 141

Biased or Poorly Constructed Questions 142

Subject Nonresponse 143

Questions Are Too Sensitive 144

Subjects Are Too Busy or Uninterested 145

Consequences Are Real 145

Chapter 7 Exercises 147

Reading Check 147

Beyond the Numbers 147

        1. That’s Getting Personal 147
        2. Bully Folly 148
        3. Healthcare and Harris Reform 148
        4. Survey Says! 150
        5. Pay to Play 151
        6. No Pay Replay 152
        7. Some Pay Saves Day 153
        8. No Pay for Your Say 153
        9. Knotty Not 154
        10. When You Say It That Way 154

Projects 155

        1. Does Race Still Matter? 155
        2. Reality Video 156

CHAPTER 8: The Language of Decision Making 157

Introduction 157

Evaluating Screening Tests 157

Practicing the Computations 160

A Little More Language 165

Bayes’ Rule 165

Chapter 8 Exercises 168

Reading Check 168

Beyond the Numbers 168

        1. Grading the FOB 168
        2. More on the FST 170
        3. Bending the Rules 172
        4. Stairway Stumble 174
        5. CAGE Practice 175
        6. Relevant Prevalence 177
        7. Will Count for Sex 178
        8. Let the Algebra Speak! 179
        9. Rarely Wrong 180
        10. Confirming Bayes’ Rule One More Time 180

Projects 181

        1. Statistical Wooziness 181
        2. Party Test 183
        3. A Test for Gender 185
          Task 1—The Initial Validation Attempt 186
          Task 2—Reflection on the Initial Validation Attempt 187
          Task 3—The Initial Validation Attempt on the Subsetted Data 187
          Task 4—Reflection on This Initial Validation Attempt188Task 5—Putting This All Together 188
        4.  Reality Video 190

CHAPTER 9: Hypothesis Testing: Concepts and Consumption 191

Introduction 191

A Paradigm for Hypothesis Testing 192

Reading with a Statistical Eye 195

The Elusive and Confusing p-value 201

Chapter 9 Exercises 203

Reading Check 203

Beyond the Numbers 203

        1. Pumpkin Powered Prostates 203
        2. Stutter Stopper? 204
        3. Statistics and Libido 206
        4. Rocky Biloba 207
        5. Unofficially Dangerous? 209
        6. Prescription to Pass 210
        7. Albatross Adaptability 212
        8. Do I Have To? 212
        9. Dangerous Training 213
        10. Voucher Vouch 214
        11. Legally Speaking 215
        12. Alternative Evidence 216
        13. Power and Beauty 216
        14. Error Rates and p-Values 219

Projects 221

        1. Statistical Significance in the News 221
        2. Reality Video 221

CHAPTER 10: Hypothesis Testing: Computations 223

Introduction 223

From Words to Parameters 223

When the Parameter Is a Proportion 225

Single-Sided with a Greater-than Alternative 225

Single-Sided with a Less-than Alternative 227

Double-Sided with a Not-Equal Alternative 228

When the Parameter Is a Mean 229

Chapter 10 Exercises 232

Reading Check 232

Beyond the Numbers 232

        1. One and Done 232
        2. Party Green 233
        3. Got No Satisfaction? 233
        4. Cancer Treatment 234
        5. Vytorin Verified 235
        6. Mary Jane Brain 236
        7. Eureka or Not? 237
        8. Better than Chance? 238
        9. Crowd Control 239
        10. A Tail of Two Hypotheses 240
        11. Mean from the Corps 241
        12. Double Trouble 243
        13. New Use for Old Intervals 245

Projects 246

        1. Conducting a Formal Survey: Part III 246
        2. Designing Your Own Experiment: Part III 248
        3. Reality Video 249

CHAPTER 11: Hypothesis Testing: Importance of Clinical Significance 251

Introduction 251

Informal Assessment of Practical Significance 252

Structured Assessment of Practical Significance 256

Minimal Clinically Important Difference 256

The Idea of Effect Size 258

From Effect Size to Sample Size 259

Chapter 11 Exercises 263

Reading Check 263

Beyond the Numbers 263

        1. Effect Size Matters 263
        2. The Economics of No Significance 264
        3. The N Crowd 265
        4. Multivitamins and Cancer 267
        5. A Measure of Effect for Proportions 268

Projects 269

        1. Effect Size and Error Rate 269
        2. Designing Your Own Experiment: Part IV 270
        3. Reality Video 272

CHAPTER 12: More than One Variable: Association and Correlation 273

Introduction 273

Measurement Levels 273

Association for Ratio Data 274

Graphical Representation of Association 274

Numerical Assessment of Association 278

Transforming a Curvilinear Scatter 281

Association for Nominal Data 283

Graphical Representation of Association 283

Numerical Assessment of Association 284

Chapter 12 Exercises 288

Reading Check 288

Beyond the Numbers 288

        1. Data Leveling 288
        2. Anscombe’s Activity 290
        3. Mortality and Global Warming 291
        4. Global Warming Transformed 292
        5. Heptathletes 293
        6. Cage the Pools 295
        7. Smoking and Heart Health 296
        8. Smoking and Heart Health 297

Projects 297

        1. Ball Park or Bull’s Eye? 297
        2. Drug Deaths and Income 299
        3. Reality Video 300

CHAPTER 13: Association and Causation: More than Meets the Eye 301

Introduction 301

Spurious Curious 302

Correlation as Evidence of Causation 306

Simpson’s Paradox 309

Chapter 13 Exercises 311

Reading Check 311

Beyond the Numbers 311

        1. Biology for Breakfast 311
        2. Mortality and Global Warming 313
        3. Some Bran Flakes on My Doughnut, Please 313
        4. College Sex at Berkeley 314
        5. Race and the Death Penalty 316

Projects 318

        1. Experts’ Advice 318
        2. I Got Your Simpson Right Here 318
        3. Reality Video 320

Appendix 321

Introduction 321

Quick Reference 322

Tables 324

Cancer Survival Data Table 328

Child Mortality Rate and CO2 Emissions 329

Standard Score Table 334

Three Sample Rubrics for Assessing Group Work 335

Peer Evaluation Form for Group Work 335

 

Exercises Old and New

If you had the opportunity to use one of the earlier editions of this book, then you will be pleased to know that nearly all of the activities have remained the same. A few have been absorbed into the chapter material, but most are simply positioned in the format of exercises following the appropriate content. There have been quite a few new exercises added. All of these are in the same student-centered format that has always characterized this book. Every chapter has at least two project activities as well, and two different capstone projects emerge one step at a time as different chapters are covered.

Data Sets

Chapter 1: Number Sense: Basic Numeracy – 1

Table 1.1 – 7

Proportions of pupils who took individual dugs in the last year: 2001 to 20061, 2, 3

Type of Drug Percentages
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Cannabis 13.4 13.2 13.3 11.3 11.7 10.1
Any Stimulants 5.6 6.2 6.1 5.4 6.2 6.2
Cocaine 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.9 1.6
Crack 1.1 1 1.2 1.1 1 0.8
Ecstasy 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6
Amphetamines4 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2
Poppers 3.4 4.3 4 3.4 3.9 4.2

Table 1.1.xlsx

Chapter 2: Number Sense: Basic Computational Skills and Benchmarks – 13

Table 2.1 – 14

CVG Airport
July 2014–June 2015
Airline Total Flights Delayed Flights
Delta 6478 227
ExpressJet 4664 578
Frontier 1542 185
American Eagle 5636 744
SkyWest 3387 325

Table 2.1.xlsx

Table 2.2 – 18

Position Minimum Salary
Senior Vice President $661,000
Director of Operations $304,000
Director of Engineering $300,000
Senior Director, Product Management $296,000
Director, Global Partnership $286,000
Senior Director, Talent Management $282,000
Finance Director $272,000
Director, Product Management $268,000
Global Creative Director $258,000
Director of Marketing $245,000

Table 2.2.xlsx

Table 2.3 – 19

Position Minimum Salary
Senior Vice President $661,000
Director of Operations $304,000
Director of Engineering $300,000
Senior Director, Product Management $296,000
Director, Global Partnership $286,000
Senior Director, Talent Management $282,000
Finance Director $272,000
Director, Product Management $268,000
Global Creative Director $258,000
Director of Marketing $245,000

Table 2.3.xlsx

Table 2.4 – 21

Salary (Salary – $317,200) (Salary – $317,200)2
$661,000 $343,800 118198440000.00
$304,000 –$13,200 174240000
$300,000 –$17,200 295840000
$296,000 –$21,200 449440000
$286,000 –$31,200 973440000
$282,000 –$35,200 1239040000
$272,000 –$45,200 2043040000
$268,000 –$49,200 2420640000
$258,000 –$59,200 3504640000
$245,000 –$72,200 5212840000

Table 2.4.xlsx

Table 2.5 – 22

Position Minimum Salary
Executive Director 54,875
Volunteer Coordinator 32,598
Store Manager 35,560
Project Manager 55,751
Director 82,734
Transportation Manager 52,048
Program Manager 48,000
Manager 56,203
Director of Development 46,827
Logistics Manager 57,156

Table 2.5.xlsx

Table 2.6 – 22

Statistic Google Habitat for Humanity
Mean $317,200 $46,465
Standard Deviation $122,252.74 $21,254,25
Coefficient of Variation 0.39 0.46

Table 2.6.xlsx

Table 2.7 – 24

Salary Bin Number of
Salaries in Bin
Relative
Number in Bin
$221,000 to $260,000 2 0.2
$261,000 to $300,000 6 0.6
$301,000 to $340,000 1 0.1
$341,000 to $380,000 0 0
$381,000 to $420,000 0 0
$421,000 to $460,000 0 0
$461,000 to $500,000 0 0
$501,000 to $540,000 0 0
$541,000 to $580,000 0 0
$581,000 to $620,000 0 0
$621,000 to $660,000 0 0
$661,000 to $700,000 1 0.1

Table 2.7.xlsx

Table 2.8 – 29

Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Murders 667 656 601 453 451 471 448 513 459 436 435 506

Table 2.8.xlsx

Table 2.9 – 35

Person Wingspan (in)
1 70
2 63
3 72
4 67
5 65
6 65
7 68
8 64
9 67
10 71

Table 2.9.xlsx

Table 2.10 – 36

Person Wingspan (in)
1 70
2 63
3 72
4 67
5 65
6 65
7 68
8 64
9 67
10 71
Anthony Davis 88

Table 2.10.xlsx

Table 2.11 Data Set 1 – 38

Ordinary Person Wingspan (in) NBA Person Wingspan (in)
Barney 70 Ike Diogu 88
Bee 73 Anthony Davis 88
Floyd 72 Shelden Williams 88
Helen 69 Elton Brand 90
Thelma 69 Shawn Bradley 90
Gomer 68 Bismack Biyombo 90
Andy 68 Saer Sene 93
Opie 64 George Muresan 94
Otis 73 Manute Bol 102

Table 2.11.xlsx

Table 2.12 – 39

Interval (Bin) Frequency
Wingspan ≤ 60 0
60 < Wingspan ≤ 65 1
65 < Wingspan ≤ 70 5
70 < Wingspan ≤ 75 3
75 < Wingspan ≤ 80 0
80 < Wingspan ≤ 85 0
85 < Wingspan ≤ 90
90 < Wingspan ≤ 95 2
95 < Wingspan ≤ 100 0
100 < Wingspan ≤ 105 1

Table 2.12.xlsx

Chapter 3: Statistical Experiments and the Problem of Confounding – 45

Table 3.1 – 50

Treatment Number of
Patients
How Many
Developed Aids
800 mg 52 0
600 mg 55 6
Placebo 56 10

Table 3.1.xlsx

Table 3.3 – 60

Distance
(cm)
Time
(sec)
Distance
(cm)
Time
(sec)
1 0.045 16 0.181
2 0.064 17 0.186
3 0.078 18 0.192
4 0.09 19 0.197
5 0.101 20 0.202
6 0.111 21 0.207
7 0.119 22 0.212
8 0.128 23 0.217
9 0.135 24 0.221
10 0.143 25 0.226
11 0.15 26 0.23
12 0.156 27 0.235
13 0.163 28 0.239
14 0.169 29 0.243
15 0.175 30 0.247

Table 3.3.xlsx

Table 3.6 – 65

Group R Time
(sec)
Group L Time
(sec)
1 0.09 1 0.111
2 0.119 2 0.181
3 0.143 3 0.09
4 0.169 4 0.186
5 0.064 5 0.045
6 0.15 6 0.143

Table 3.6.xlsx

Table 3.7 – 66

Left Right
1 1.05
0.74 0.76
0.66 0.71
0.78 0.79
0.68 0.69
0.65 0.72
0.75 0.75
0.69 0.72
0.94 0.99
0.79 0.8
0.81 0.82
0.62 0.67

Table 3.7.xlsx

Chapter 4: Sampling: Purpose and Challenges – 71

Table 4.5 Results of a Random Sample of 100 Likely Voters – 94

Planned to Vote “Obama” Planned to Vote “Romney”
80 Democrats 70% 30%
20 Republicans 20% 80%

Table 4.5.xlsx

Chapter 5: Confidence Intervals: What They Are and How We Use Them – 99

Table 5.1 Statistics Based on Samples of Size 50 – 101

36 36 42 30 28
38 46 48 38 36
42 38 28 36 40
32 32 38 32 36
34 46 32 36 36
46 48 36 48 44
36 40 38 50 40
22 46 44 36 38
26 30 34 34 36
20 38 36 36 60
48 28 46 34 34
40 36 32 50 32

 

34 36 34 48 32
32 40 38 34 40
36 44 42 36 38
36 36 36 42 40
56 42 28 52 36
40 38 26 36 34
30 38 36 36 32
36 48 36 34 28
32 38 38 36 48
40 32 42 40 42
30 32 44 44 36

Table 5.1.xlsx

Table 5.2 Confidence Coefficients – 101

C%
If You Want a Level
of Confidence of:
z*
Then Use This
Confidence Coefficient
50% 0.67
60% 0.84
70% 1.04
80% 1.28
90% 1.64
95% 2
99% 2.58
99.9% 3.29

Table 5.2.xlsx

Table 5.3 Confidence Intervals for Repeated Samples of Size 50 – 104

Sample
% “Yes”
Confidence
Interval
Sample
% “Yes”
Confidence
Interval
Sample
% “Yes”
Confidence
Interval
Sample
% “Yes”
Confidence
Interval
Sample
% “Yes”
Confidence
Interval
36 (21.86, 50.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 42 (27.86, 56.14) 30 (15.86, 44.14) 28 (13.86, 42.14)
38 (23.86, 52.14) 46 (31.86, 60.14) 48 (33.86, 62.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14)
42 (27.86, 56.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 28 (13.86, 42.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 40 (25.86, 54.14)
32 (17.86, 46.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14)
34 (19.86, 48.14) 46 (31.86, 60.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14)
46 (31.86, 60.14) 48 (33.86, 62.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 48 (33.86, 62.14) 44 (29.86, 58.14)
36 (21.86, 50.14) 40 (25.86, 54.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 50 (35.86, 64.14) 40 (25.86, 54.14)
22 (7.86, 36.14) 46 (31.86, 60.14) 44 (29.86, 58.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14)
26 (11.86, 40.14) 30 (15.86, 44.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14)
20 (5.86, 34.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 60 (45.86, 74.14)
48 (33.86, 62.14) 28 (13.86, 42.14) 46 (31.86, 60.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14)
40 (25.86, 54.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14) 50 (35.86, 64.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14)
34 (19.86, 48.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14) 48 (33.86, 62.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14)
32 (17.86, 46.14) 40 (25.86, 54.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14) 40 (25.86, 54.14)
36 (21.86, 50.14) 44 (29.86, 58.14) 42 (27.86, 56.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14)
36 (21.86, 50.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 42 (27.86, 56.14) 40 (25.86, 54.14)
56 (41.86, 70.14) 42 (27.86, 56.14) 28 (13.86, 42.14) 52 (37.86, 66.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14)
40 (25.86, 54.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 26 (11.86, 40.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14)
30 (15.86, 44.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14)
36 (21.86, 50.14) 48 (33.86, 62.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 34 (19.86, 48.14) 28 (13.86, 42.14)
32 (17.86, 46.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 38 (23.86, 52.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14) 48 (33.86, 62.14)
40 (25.86, 54.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14) 42 (27.86, 56.14) 40 (25.86, 54.14) 42 (27.86, 56.14)
30 (15.86, 44.14) 32 (17.86, 46.14) 44 (29.86, 58.14) 44 (29.86, 58.14) 36 (21.86, 50.14)

Table 5.3.xlsx

Table 5.4 Percentages of Subjects Agreeing with the Statement1 – 112

Statement First Year Students
(n = 442)
Master Students
(n = 34)
Researchers
(n = 118)
1. The probability that the true proportion is greater than 0 is at least 95%. 51% 32% 38%
2. The probability that the true proportion equals 0 is smaller than 5%. 55% 44% 47%
3 There is a 95% probability that the true proportion lies between 0.1 and 0.4. 58% 50% 59%
4. We can be 95% confident that the true proportion lies between 0.1 and 0.4. 49% 50% 55%
5. If we were to repeat the experiment over and over, then 95% of the time the true proportion falls between 0.1 and 0.4. 66% 79% 58%

Table 5.4.xlsx

Table 5.5 – 114

President Age at Inauguration
James Madison 57 years, 353 days
Martin Van Buren 54 years, 89 days
Millard Fillmore 50 years, 183 days
Warren G. Harding 55 years, 122 days
William McKinley 54 years, 34 days
William Howard Taft 51 years, 170 days
George Washington 57 years, 67 days
Benjamin Harrison 55 years, 196 days
Franklin D. Roosevelt 51 years, 33 days
Ulysses S. Grant 46 years, 311 days

Table 5.5.xlsx

Chapter 6: Confidence Intervals: Where They Come From – 121

Table 6.1 Counts and percentages from the college scorecard data – 123

Interval Count Percentage
out of 1384
Between 1055.616 – (1 × 18.863)
and 1055.616 + (1 × 18.863)
988 71.40%
Between 1055.616 – (2 × 18.863)
and 1055.616 + (2 × 18.863)
1300 93.90%
Between 1055.616 – (3 × 18.863)
and 1055.616 + (3 × 18.863)
1384 100%

Table 6.1.xlsx

Table 6.2 Study Results1 – 133

Response Number of Subjects
Choosing This Response
1 – Strongly Disagree 9
2 – Disagree 43
3 – Neutral/Undecided 59
4 – Agree 52
5 – Strongly Agree 18

Table 6.2.xlsx

Chapter 7: Sampling: When Probability Isn’t Enough – 141

Table 7.1 – 144

Item Percentage
Nonresponse
Total household income 8.15
No. of lifetime male sexual partners 3.05
Received public assistance 2.22
No. of times had sex in past 4 weeks 1.37
Age of first sexual intercourse 0.87
Blood tested for HIV 0.65
Age of first menstrual period 0.39
Highest grade completed 0.04

Table 7.1.xlsx

Table 7.2 – 151

Incentive Group
(Early Response)
Number of
Respondents
Number of
Non-Respondents
Group 1 ($0) 66 336
Group 2 ($20) 120 271
Group 3 ($30) 138 266
Total 324 873

Table 7.2.xlsx

Table 7.3 – 152

Incentive Group
(Early Response)
Number of
Respondents
Number of
Non-Respondents
Group 1 ($0) 109 227
Group 2 ($20) 91 180
Group 3 ($30) 96 170
Total 296 577

Table 7.3.xlsx

Table 7.4 – 153

Incentive Group
(Early Response)
Number of
Respondents
Number of
Non-Respondents
NF1 ($0) 98 190
NF2 ($30) 135 154

Table 7.4.xlsx

Chapter 8: The Language of Decision Making – 157

Table 8.1 – 159

Kit Type % Time Kit Didn’t Say
Subject Was Pregnant,
When She Actually
Was
Ova II 47.4
Predictor 3
Answer 22
Daisy 2 18
e.p.t. 18
e.p.t. plus 10
Advance 14
Fact 0
Answer 2 0
First Response 7.1
Advance 8.8

Table 8.1.xlsx

Table 8.2 – 159

Kit Type % Time Kit Didn’t Say
Subject Was Pregnant,
When She Actually
Was
Ova II 48.1
Predictor 4
Answer 36
Daisy 2 36
e.p.t. 25
e.p.t. plus 8
Advance 9
Fact 6.5
Answer 2 6.5
First Response 0
Advance 0

Table 8.2.xlsx

Table 8.3 – 160

Kit Type FNR FPR
Ova II 47.4 48.1
Predictor 3 4
Answer 22 36
Daisy 2 18 36
e.p.t. 18 25
e.p.t. plus 10 8
Advance 14 9
Fact 0 6.5
Answer 2 0 6.5
First Response 7.1 0
Advance 8.8 0

Table 8.3.xlsx

Table 8.4 – 161

Actual Status
ImPACT Prediction Athlete was, in reality,
not concussed
Athlete was, in reality,
concussed
Totals
ImPACT said “not
concussed”
59 13 72
ImPACT said
“concussed”
7 59 66
Totals 66 72 138

Table 8.4.xlxs

Table 8.5 – 162

Actual Status as determined by Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV
Beck Inventory
Indication
Patient was, in reality,
not depressed
Patient was, in reality,
depressed
Totals
Beck said “not depressed” 66 5 71
Beck said “depressed” 12 12 24
Totals 78 17 95

Table 8.5.xlsx

Table 8.6 – 163

Case HGN OLS WAT Total FST Actual BAC
229 0 0 1 1 0
254 0 0 1 1 0.02
66 1 1 0.067
142 2 0 0 2 0.005
217 2 0 0 2 0.03
191 2 2 0.034
182 2 0 0 2 0.038
109 2 2 0.04
259 2 0 0 2 0.04
199 0 1 1 2 0.048
13 2 0 0 2 0.05
2 2 2 0.06
67 2 1 3 0.022
145 0 3 0 3 0.03
53 2 0 1 3 0.032
15 2 0 1 3 0.04
287 2 0 1 3 0.04
89 2 1 0 2 0.05
123 0 1 2 3 0.05
258 2 1 0 3 0.053
35 2 0 2 3 0
11 2 1 1 4 0.01
247 4 4 0.016
6 2 0 2 4 0.02
294 2 0 2 4 0.02
231 2 0 2 4 0.03
74 2 1 1 4 0.04
214 2 1 1 4 0.04
58 4 4 0.05
14 2 1 1 4 0.058
34 4 0 0 4 0.058
12 2 0 2 4 0.06
211 2 1 1 4 0.06
232 4 0 0 4 0.06
293 2 2 0 4 0.06
130 2 1 1 4 0.07
297 4 4 0.08
271 2 0 2 4 0.1
119 2 2 4 0.121

Table 8.6.xlsx

Table 8.7 Using Total FST ≥ 2 to Designate "Drunk" – 164

FST
Decision
Actual BAC Totals
< 0.04%
(Sober)
≥ 0.04%
(Drunk)
Sober 9 11 20
Drunk 20 256 276
Totals 29 267 296 Given

Table 8.7.xlsx

Table 8.8 – 165

Actual Status
ImPACT Prediction Athlete was, in reality,
not concussed
Athlete was, in reality,
concussed
Totals
ImPACT said “not
concussed”
59 13 72
ImPACT said
“concussed”
7 59 66
Totals 66 72 138

Table 8.4.xlsx

Table 8.9 Performance of the FOB – 168

Patients with Bowel Cancer
(as confirmed on endoscopy)
FOB Test Positive Negative
Positive 2 18
Negative 1 182

Table 8.9.xlsx

Table 8.10 – 170

HGN OLS WAT Actual BAC HGN OLS WAT Actual BAC
0 0 1 0.000 4 1 0 0.020
2 0 2 0.000 2 1 0.020
2 5 2 0.000 2 3 1 0.027
2 0 0 0.005 6 2 2 0.028
2 1 1 0.010 0 3 0 0.030
2 1 2 0.010 2 0 0 0.030
4 0.016 2 0 2 0.030
2 2 2 0.017 2 1 2 0.030
4 2 4 0.017 2 3 0.030
0 0 1 0.020 2 0 1 0.030
2 0 2 0.020 2 0.034
2 1 2 0.020 3 3 3 0.037
2 3 3 0.020 2 0 0 0.038
2 0 2 0.020 2 3 1 0.039
2 1 2 0.020

Table 8.10.xlsx

Table 8.11 – 171

FST
Decision
Actual BAC Totals
< 0.04% ≥ 0.04%
Sober A 2 D
Drunk B 265 E
Totals C 267 296

Table 8.11.xlsx

Table 8.12 – 171

FST
Decision
Actual BAC Totals
< 0.04%
(Sober)
≥ 0.04%
(Drunk)
Sober 18 22 40
Drunk 11 245 256
Totals 29 267 296

Table 8.12.xlsx

Table 8.13 Using Total FST ≥ 2 to Designate "Drunk" – 172

FST
Decision
Actual BAC Totals
< 0.04%
(Sober)
≥ 0.04%
(Drunk)
Sober 2 1 3
Drunk 27 266 293
Totals 29 267 296

Table 8.13.xlsx

Table 8.15– 173

Cutoff (Rule) Sensitivity Specificity
≤ 5 suggests
hypothyroidism
0.56 0.99
≤ 7 suggests
hypothyroidism
0.78 0.81
≤ 9 suggests
hypothyroidism
0.91 0.42

Table 8.15.xlsx

Table 8.16– 174

Truth Regarding
Fracture
Totals
Predicted by the
Ottawa Ankle Test
CA CP
T– 51 5 56
T+ 277 88 365
Totals 328 93 421

Table 8.16.xlsx

Table 8.17 Ankle Test Results – 174

Truth Regarding
Fracture
Totals
Predicted by the
Ottawa Ankle Test
Not Fractured Fractured
Not Fractured 5 21 26
Fractured 26 369 395
Totals 31 390 421

Table 8.17.xlsx

Table 8.18 Alcohol Test Results – 176

Truth Regarding
Fracture
Totals
Predicted by
CAGE Test
No Alcohol Problem Alcohol Problem
No Alcohol
Problem
400 57 457
Alcohol Problem 1 60 61
Totals 401 117 518

Table 8.18.xlsx

Table 8.19 Cancer Test Results – 177

Truth Regarding
Fracture
Totals
Predicted by
Test
No Liver
Cancer
Liver
Cancer
No Liver
Cancer
543 18 561
Liver Cancer 29 12 41
Totals 572 30 602

Table 8.19.xlsx

Table 8.20 Gender Test Results – 178

Truth Regarding
Fracture
Totals
Predicted by
Test
Male Female
Male 0 3 3
Female 10 55 65
Totals 10 58 68

Table 8.20.xlsx

Table 8.22 – 180

Actual Status as determined by Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV
Beck Inventory
Indication
Patient was, in reality,
not depressed
Patient was, in reality,
depressed
Totals
Beck said “not depressed” 66 5 71
Beck said “depressed” 12 12 24
Totals 78 17 95

Table 8.5.xlsx

Table 8.26 Using Total Name Length > 6 to Designate "Female" – 186

Test Decision Actual Gender Totals
Female Male
Female 58 41 99
Male 0 0 0
Totals 58 41 99
Sensitivity =
(58/58)*100% = 100%
Specificity =
(0/41)*100% = 0%
Accuracy = (58/99)*Sensitivity + (41/99)*Specificity = (58/99) = 0.59

Table 8.26.xlsx

Table 8.29 Reduced Data Set for Tasks 3 and 4 – 187

Student Length
of Name
Student Length
of Name
Male 1 21 Male 6 15
Male 2 12 Male 7 13
Male 3 12 Male 8 12
Male 4 10 Male 9 15
Male 5 14 Male 10 13

Table 8.29.xlsx

Table 8.30 Using Total Name Length > 6 to Designate "Female" – 187

Test Decision Actual Gender Totals
Female Male
Female 58 41 99
Male 0 0 0
Totals 58 41 99
Sensitivity =
(58/58)*100% = 100%
Specificity =
(0/41)*100% = 0%
Accuracy = (58/99)*Sensitivity + (41/99)*Specificity = (58/99) = 0.59

Table 8.26.xlsx

Table 8.33 – 189

Student Gender Length of Name  Student Gender Length of Name  Student Gender Length of Name
Female Student 1 F 10 Female Student 43 F 12 Male Student 27 M 12
Female Student 2 F 13 Female Student 44 F 18 Male Student 28 M 11
Female Student 3 F 12 Female Student 45 F 13 Male Student 29 M 14
Female Student 4 F 12 Female Student 46 F 14 Male Student 30 M 11
Female Student 5 F 13 Female Student 47 F 15 Male Student 31 M 15
Female Student 6 F 15 Female Student 48 F 10 Male Student 32 M 14
Female Student 7 F 13 Female Student 49 F 13 Male Student 33 M 9
Female Student 8 F 12 Female Student 50 F 14 Male Student 34 M 13
Female Student 9 F 11 Female Student 51 F 12 Male Student 35 M 16
Female Student 10 F 11 Female Student 52 F 17 Male Student 36 M 12
Female Student 11 F 14 Female Student 53 F 11 Male Student 37 M 9
Female Student 12 F 22 Female Student 54 F 14 Male Student 38 M 9
Female Student 13 F 11 Female Student 55 F 11 Male Student 39 M 16
Female Student 14 F 15 Female Student 56 F 9 Male Student 40 M 14
Female Student 15 F 13 Female Student 57 F 13 Male Student 41 M 12
Female Student 16 F 11 Female Student 58 F 14
Female Student 17 F 9 Male Student 1 M 21
Female Student 18 F 11 Male Student 2 M 12
Female Student 19 F 13 Male Student 3 M 12
Female Student 20 F 17 Male Student 4 M 10
Female Student 21 F 13 Male Student 5 M 14
Female Student 22 F 12 Male Student 6 M 15
Female Student 23 F 13 Male Student 7 M 13
Female Student 24 F 17 Male Student 8 M 12
Female Student 25 F 9 Male Student 9 M 15
Female Student 26 F 12 Male Student 10 M 13
Female Student 27 F 13 Male Student 11 M 12
Female Student 28 F 13 Male Student 12 M 12
Female Student 29 F 14 Male Student 13 M 16
Female Student 30 F 13 Male Student 14 M 10
Female Student 31 F 11 Male Student 15 M 11
Female Student 32 F 14 Male Student 16 M 12
Female Student 33 F 11 Male Student 17 M 10
Female Student 34 F 15 Male Student 18 M 10
Female Student 35 F 13 Male Student 19 M 12
Female Student 36 F 13 Male Student 20 M 14
Female Student 37 F 14 Male Student 21 M 11
Female Student 38 F 14 Male Student 22 M 12
Female Student 39 F 14 Male Student 23 M 19
Female Student 40 F 13 Male Student 24 M 19
Female Student 41 F 10 Male Student 25 M 15
Female Student 42 F 13 Male Student 26 M 11

Table 8.33.xlsx

Chapter 10: Hypothesis Testing: Computations – 223

Table 10.1 Finch Survival Rates – 238

Site Observed
Survival Rate
with Drug
Number
of Finches
Studied
Able to Reject
H0: p ≤ 0.32?
1 0.35 n = 100 No
2 0.34 n = 100 No
3 0.31 n = 100 No
4 0.33 n = 100 No
5 0.33 n = 100 No
6 0.35 n = 100 No
7 0.35 n = 100 No
8 0.33 n = 100 No
9 0.30 n = 100 No
10 0.34 n = 100 No
11 0.34 n = 100 No
12 0.30 n = 100 No
13 0.34 n = 100 No
14 0.31 n = 100 No
15 0.31 n = 100 No
16 0.31 n = 100 No
17* 0.45 n = 100 Yes
18 0.30 n = 100 No
19 0.35 n = 100 No
20 0.33 n = 100 No

Table 10.1.xlsx

Table 10.3 – 240

Sleep (Hours) Average Pain
Rating
Standard
Deviation
Sample Size
0–3 1.36 1.51 75
4 1.13 1.36 166
5 0.94 1.29 434
6 0.79 1.11 1,138
7 0.73 1.11 1,568
8 0.75 1.13 1,557
9 0.71 1.09 339
10 1.24 1.4 119
11+ 1.78 1.59 66

Table 10.3.xlsx

Table 10.4 Crown's Setup Times – 241

Attempt Setup Time
1 200
2 189
3 180
4 168
5 168
6 195
7 167
8 200
9 167
10 210
11 185
12 167
13 190
14 180
15 175
16 175
17 182
18 171
19 202
20 195
21 212
22 203
23 150
24 175
25 200
26 182
27 184
28 165
29 203
30 180

Table 10.4.xlsx

Table 10.5 Pain Relief Results – 244

Sleep (Hours) Average Pain
Rating
Standard
Deviation
Sample Size
0–3 1.36 1.51 75
4 1.13 1.36 166
5 0.94 1.29 434
6 0.79 1.11 1,138
7 0.73 1.11 1,568
8 0.75 1.13 1,557
9 0.71 1.09 339
10 1.24 1.4 119
11+ 1.78 1.59 66

Table 10.3.xlsx

Chapter 11: Hypothesis Testing: Importance of Clinical Significance – 251

Table 11.1 Pain Relief Results – 259

Sleep (Hours) Average Pain
Rating
Standard
Deviation
Sample Size
5 0.94 1.29 434
8 0.75 1.13 1,557

Table 11.1.xlsx

Table 11.2 Cohen's Thresholds for d – 261

Cohen’s Thresholds for d
Small Medium Large Very Large
0.20 0.50 0.80 1.30

Table 11.2.xlsx

Chapter 12: More than One Variable: Association and Correlation – 273

Table 12.1 – 275

Year  DTP Coverage (%) Number of Autism Cases
1980 50.9 176
1981 55.4 201
1982 52.1 212
1983 47.7 229
1984 48.9 246
1985 54.3 293
1986 54.1 357
1987 55.3 347
1988 60.9 436
1989 62.2 522
1990 65.9 663
1991 67.3 823
1992 69.8 1042
1993 73.6 1090
1994 75.7 1182

Table 12.1.xlsx

Table 12.2 – 276

HWY MPG CO2/Mile HWY MPG CO2/Mile HWY MPG CO2/Mile HWY MPG CO2/Mile
48.00 133.00 36.00 298.00 32.00 348.00 30.00 408.00
49.00 178.00 35.00 302.00 34.00 346.00 29.00 403.00
45.00 188.00 37.00 303.00 31.00 355.00 29.00 403.00
41.00 209.00 37.00 308.00 31.00 354.00 28.00 413.00
39.00 215.00 37.00 304.00 31.00 349.00 28.00 417.00
37.00 225.00 36.00 310.00 32.00 362.00 28.00 422.00
38.00 224.00 36.00 310.00 32.00 361.00 28.00 417.00
36.00 129.00 36.00 307.00 31.00 362.00 26.00 443.00
36.00 129.00 35.00 317.00 31.00 358.00 25.00 446.00
40.00 237.00 36.00 316.00 30.00 371.00
40.00 237.00 36.00 311.00 30.00 371.00
40.00 239.00 35.00 323.00 31.00 369.00
39.00 242.00 35.00 314.00 31.00 369.00
44.00 293.00 36.00 322.00 29.00 385.00
42.00 298.00 36.00 322.00 28.00 390.00
40.00 275.00 34.00 324.00 32.00 385.00
38.00 282.00 34.00 330.00 32.00 385.00
38.00 284.00 32.00 344.00 31.00 379.00
36.00 292.00 34.00 338.00 29.00 399.00
38.00 293.00 33.00 338.00 27.00 405.00

Table 12.2.xlsx

Table 12.3 – 277

Burger Brand Fat Sodium
A 19 920
B 31 1500
C 34 1310
D 35 860
E 39 1180
F 39 940
G 43 1260

Table 12.3.xlsx

Table 12.4 – 278

Country Life Expectancy TV/Person Country Life Expectancy TV/Person
Argentina 70.5 0.250 Morocco 64.5 0.048
Bangladesh 53.5 0.003 Myanmar (Burma) 54.5 0.002
Brazil 65.0 0.250 Pakistan 56.5 0.014
Canada 76.5 0.588 Peru 64.5 0.071
China 70 0.125 Philippines 64.5 0.114
Colombia 71 0.179 Poland 73 0.256
Egypt 60.5 0.067 Romania 72 0.167
Ethiopia 51.5 0.002 Russia 69 0.312
France 78 0.385 South Africa 64 0.091
Germany 76 0.385 Spain 78.5 0.385
India 57.5 0.023 Sudan 53 0.043
Indonesia 61 0.042 Taiwan 75 0.312
Iran 64.5 0.043 Thailand 68.5 0.091
Italy 78.5 0.263 Turkey 70 0.200
Japan 79 0.556 Ukraine 70.5 0.333
Kenya 61 0.010 United Kingdom 76 0.333
Korea-North 70 0.011 United States 75.5 0.769
Korea-South 70 0.204 Venezuela 74.5 0.179
Mexico 72 0.152 Vietnam 65 0.034

Table 12.4.xlsx.

Table 12.5 – 279

DTP Coverage “x Number of Austism
Cases “y
xy x2 y2
50.9 176 8958.4 2590.81 30976
55.4 201 11135.4 3069.16 40401
52.1 212 11045.2 2714.41 44944
47.7 229 10923.3 2275.29 52441
48.9 246 12029.4 2391.21 60516
54.3 293 15909.9 2948.49 85849
54.1 357 19313.7 2926.81 127449
55.3 347 19189.1 3058.09 120409
60.9 436 26552.4 3708.81 190096
62.2 522 32468.4 3868.84 272484
65.9 663 43691.7 4342.81 439569
67.3 823 55387.9 4529.29 677329
69.8 1042 72731.6 4872.04 1085764
73.6 1090 80224 5416.96 1188100
75.7 1182 89477.4 5730.49 1397124
Σx = 894.1 Σy = 7819 Σxy = 509037.8 Σx2 = 54443.51 Σy2 = 5813451

Table 12.5.xlsx

Table 12.6 – 283

Hepatitis No Hepatitis
Tattoo 25 88
No Tattoo 22 491

Table 12.6.xlsx

Table 12.7 – 283

Hepatitis No Hepatitis
Tattoo 22.12% 77.88%
No Tattoo 4.29% 95.71%

Table 12.7.xlsx

Table 12.8 – 285

Hepatitis No Hepatitis Totals
Tattoo 25 (8.48) 88 (104.52) 113
No Tattoo 22 (38.52) 491 (474.48) 513
Totals 47 579 626

Table 12.8.xlsx

Table 12.9 – 291

Obs  x1  y1  x4  y4 
1 10 8.04 8 6.58
2 8 6.95 8 5.76
3 13 7.58 8 7.71
4 9 8.81 8 8.84
5 11 8.33 8 8.47
6 6 7.24 8 5.25
7 14 9.96 8 7.04
8 4 4.26 19 12.5
9 12 10.84 8 5.56
10 7 4.82 8 7.91
11 5 5.68 8 6.89

Table 12.9.xlsx

Table 12.10 – 293

Name Hurdles (seconds over 2 mins) Javelin (meters)
Joyner-Kersee 12.85 44.98
Nastase 12.86 41.3
Dimitrova 13.23 44.48
Belova 13.25 41.9
Braun 13.25 51.12
Beer 13.48 48.1
Court 13.48 52.12
Kamrowska 13.48 44.12
Wlodarczyk 13.57 43.46
Greiner 13.59 40.78
Kaljurand 13.64 47.42
Zhu 13.64 45.12
Skjaeveland 13.73 35.42
Lesage 13.75 41.28
Nazaroviene 13.75 44.42
Aro 13.87 45.42
Marxer 13.94 41.08
Rattya 13.96 49.02
Carter 13.97 37.58
Atroshchenko 14.03 45.18
Vaidianu 14.04 49
Teppe 14.06 52.58
Clarius 14.1 45.15
Bond-Mills 14.31 43.3
Barber 14.79 0
Chouaa 16.62 44.4

Table 12.10.xlsx

Table 12.11 – 295

Year Number of people who drowned  by falling into
a swimming pool
Number of films
Nicolas Cage
appeared in
1999 109 2
2000 102 2
2001 102 2
2002 98 3
2003 85 1
2004 95 1
2005 96 2
2006 98 3
2007 123 4
2008 94 1
2009 102 4

Table 12.11.xlsx

Table 12.12 – 296

Myocardial Infarction
in 10 years
No Myocardial
Infarction in 10 years
Smoked 563 5336
Never Smoked 87 1732

Table 12.12.xlsx

Table 12.13 – 297

Current HRT Never HRT
Hip Fracture 40 1287
No Hip Fracture 239 3023

Table 12.13.xlsx

Table 12.14 – 297

Hepatitis No Hepatitis
Tattoo 25 88
No Tattoo 22 491

Table 12.6.xlsx

Chapter 13: Association and Causation: More than Meets the Eye – 301

Table 13.1 – 304

Year Number of people who drowned  by falling into
a swimming pool
Number of films
Nicolas Cage
appeared in
1999 109 2
2000 102 2
2001 102 2
2002 98 3
2003 85 1
2004 95 1
2005 96 2
2006 98 3
2007 123 4
2008 94 1
2009 102 4

Table 13.1.xlsx

Table 13.3 – 309

Breakfast No
Breakfast
Totals
C or above on Exam 600 220 820
Below C on Exam 225 214 439
Totals 825 434 1259

Table 13.3.xlsx

Table 13.4 – 309

Breakfast No
Breakfast
Totals
C or above on Exam 600 220 820
Below C on Exam 225 214 439
Totals 825 434 1259

 

Watched Game of Thrones all night
Breakfast No
Breakfast
Totals
C or above on Exam 90 160 250
Below C on Exam 180 160 340
Totals 270 320 590

 

Went to bed by 10 p.m
Breakfast No
Breakfast
Totals
C or above on Exam 460 110 570
Below C on Exam 95 4 99
Totals 555 114 669

Table 13.4.xlsx

Table 13.5 – 310

Up all Night In Bed by
10 p.m.
Totals
C or above on Exam 250 570 820
Below C on Exam 340 99 439
Totals 590 669 1259

Table 13.5.xlsx

Table 13.6 Both Colleges Combined – 314

Gender Not Admitted Admitted Totals
Men 1493 1198 2,691
Women 1278 557 1,835

Table 13.6.xlsx

Table 13.7 College A – 314

Gender Not Admitted Admitted Totals
Men 520 865 1,385
Women 27 106 133

Table 13.7.xlsx

Table 13.8 College B – 315

Gender Not Admitted Admitted Totals
Men 973 333 1,306
Women 1251 451 1,702

Table 13.8.xlsx

Table 13.9 Imposition of the Death Penalty by Race – 316

White
Defendant
Black
Defendant
Death Penalty 19 17
No Death Penalty 141 149
Total Cases 160 166

Table 13.9.xlsx

Table 13.10 Imposition of the Death Penalty by Race of Defendant: White Victim – 316

White
Defendant
Black
Defendant
Death Penalty 19 11
No Death Penalty 132 52
Total Cases 151 63

Table 13.10.xlsx

Table 13.11 Imposition of the Death Penalty by Race of Defendant: Black Victim – 317

White
Defendant
Black
Defendant
Death Penalty 0 6
No Death Penalty 9 97
Total Cases 9 103

Table 13.11.xlsx

Validation Standardized Field Sobriety Test Battery BACS

Validation of the Standardized Field Sobriety Test Battery at BACS below 0.10% Data Set

Case HGN OLS  WAT Total FST Actual BAC
229 0 0 1 1 0
254 0 0 1 1 0.02
66 1 1 0.067
142 2 0 0 2 0.005
217 2 0 0 2 0.03
191 2 2 0.034
182 2 0 0 2 0.038
109 2 2 0.04
259 2 0 0 2 0.04
199 0 1 1 2 0.048
113 2 0 0 2 0.05
22 2 2 0.06
67 2 1 3 0.022
145 0 3 0 3 0.03
53 2 0 1 3 0.032
15 2 0 1 3 0.04
287 2 0 1 3 0.04
89 2 1 0 3 0.05
123 0 1 2 3 0.05
258 2 1 0 3 0.053
35 2 0 2 4 0
11 2 1 1 4 0.01
247 4 4 0.016
6 2 0 2 4 0.02
294 2 0 2 4 0.02
231 2 0 2 4 0.03
74 2 1 1 4 0.04
214 2 1 1 4 0.04
58 4 4 0.05
14 2 1 1 4 0.058
34 4 0 0 4 0.058
12 2 0 2 4 0.06
211 2 1 1 4 0.06
232 4 0 0 4 0.06
293 2 2 0 4 0.06
130 2 1 1 4 0.07
297 4 4 0.08
271 2 0 2 4 0.1
119 2 2 4 0.121
296 2 1 2 5 0.01
88 2 1 2 5 0.02
176 4 1 0 5 0.02
295 2 1 2 5 0.02
137 2 3 5 0.03
288 2 1 2 5 0.03
13 0 1 4 5 0.043
54 4 1 0 5 0.046
20 2 3 5 0.049
164 2 1 2 5 0.07
99 2 2 1 5 0.12
223 5 5 0.18
91 2 2 2 6 0.017
111 2 3 1 6 0.027
31 2 3 1 6 0.039
29 4 1 1 6 0.05
76 4 1 1 6 0.05
260 6 6 0.07
86 6 6 0.088
8 6 6 0.09
212 6 6 0.11
114 4 1 1 6 0.116
79 6 6 0.12
198 6 6 0.2
59 6 6 0.22
107 6 6 0.23
221 6 6 0.23
24 6 6 0.26
157 6 6 0.33
126 4 1 2 7 0.04
289 2 1 4 7 0.04
75 2 4 1 7 0.048
52 4 2 1 7 0.05
2 2 2 3 7 0.06
263 2 3 2 7 0.07
149 6 1 7 0.13
117 3 4 7 0.14
165 2 3 3 8 0.02
27 4 2 2 8 0.05
219 2 3 3 8 0.07
213 4 2 2 8 0.08
291 2 4 2 8 0.08
131 4 2 2 8 0.082
72 4 2 2 8 0.09
166 6 1 1 8 0.09
292 4 2 2 8 0.09
125 4 0 4 8 0.091
280 6 1 1 8 0.1
134 6 1 1 8 0.102
62 6 1 1 8 0.15
56 6 1 1 8 0.16
189 6 1 1 8 0.173
71 2 3 3 8 0.19
84 2 5 2 9 0
104 3 3 3 9 0.037
183 6 1 2 9 0.04
187 2 6 1 9 0.05
226 6 1 2 9 0.058
121 6 2 1 9 0.06
186 4 4 1 9 0.063
106 6 2 1 9 0.08
140 4 4 1 9 0.08
163 6 3 0 9 0.08
193 2 3 4 9 0.1
10 6 3 9 0.12
77 6 3 9 0.156
93 6 3 9 0.2
47 6 3 9 0.25
209 6 2 1 9 0.32
122 4 2 4 10 0.017
127 6 2 2 10 0.028
178 6 0 4 10 0.07
282 6 4 10 0.08
112 6 1 3 10 0.09
37 6 1 3 10 0.1
116 6 1 3 10 0.1
234 4 2 4 10 0.11
124 6 3 1 10 0.142
115 6 4 10 0.21
227 4 4 3 11 0.06
185 6 3 2 11 0.07
224 4 4 3 11 0.07
135 3 3 5 11 0.078
28 6 2 3 11 0.08
50 4 4 3 11 0.08
298 6 3 2 11 0.085
152 6 2 3 11 0.104
205 6 3 2 11 0.11
96 6 3 2 11 0.12
144 6 3 2 11 0.12
200 6 1 4 11 0.14
257 6 3 2 11 0.14
286 6 4 1 11 0.15
159 6 1 4 11 0.16
133 6 3 2 11 0.176
80 6 3 2 11 0.3
30 4 5 3 12 0.05
16 6 1 5 12 0.069
32 6 4 2 12 0.076
1 4 2 6 12 0.089
235 6 3 3 12 0.09
204 6 3 3 12 0.11
220 6 3 3 12 0.11
238 6 4 2 12 0.11
23 6 4 2 12 0.12
97 6 3 3 12 0.12
101 6 3 3 12 0.12
281 6 4 2 12 0.12
188 6 5 1 12 0.128
70 6 4 2 12 0.131
38 6 3 3 12 0.14
57 6 4 2 12 0.14
85 6 4 2 12 0.14
206 6 4 2 12 0.14
240 6 3 3 12 0.17
250 4 8 12 0.18
170 6 2 4 12 0.19
94 6 6 12 0.22
132 6 4 2 12 0.27
148 6 7 0 13 0.05
129 4 7 2 13 0.07
252 6 4 3 13 0.08
120 6 4 3 13 0.09
241 6 4 3 13 0.09
278 6 4 3 13 0.1
65 6 3 4 13 0.11
154 4 6 3 13 0.11
201 4 9 13 0.11
87 6 7 13 0.12
167 6 4 3 13 0.12
19 6 4 3 13 0.13
98 6 5 2 13 0.132
17 6 4 3 13 0.14
46 6 3 4 13 0.14
228 6 5 2 13 0.14
233 6 4 3 13 0.14
237 6 4 3 13 0.16
102 6 3 4 13 0.17
68 4 6 3 13 0.19
277 6 4 3 13 0.19
284 6 3 4 13 0.19
81 6 3 4 13 0.2
162 6 3 4 13 0.23
175 4 6 4 14 0.07
196 6 2 6 14 0.074
153 6 3 5 14 0.098
105 6 4 4 14 0.1
128 6 4 4 14 0.1
208 4 7 3 14 0.1
262 6 3 5 14 0.1
4 6 4 4 14 0.12
103 6 3 5 14 0.12
242 6 4 4 14 0.12
5 6 5 3 14 0.13
64 6 4 4 14 0.13
261 6 4 4 14 0.14
268 6 5 3 14 0.14
78 6 4 4 14 0.15
181 6 4 4 14 0.15
190 6 3 5 14 0.15
194 6 5 3 14 0.15
82 6 1 7 14 0.16